Basics of Networking for Beginners- Part 2 of 2

This is the second part of the two part series on networking. The link to the first part is:

Hi everyone, this is Mrinal Prakash aka EMPHAY and today I am going to make you all understand the basics of networking and how it works. Networking is a massive topic, so this really will just be a brief overview; however, it will hopefully give you some foundational knowledge of the topic, which you can build upon for yourself. So lets get started.

IP Address (Internet Protocol address)

The IP Address is the network address of the system across the network.
To identify each device in the world-wide-web, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigns an IPV4 (Version 4) address as a unique identifier to each device on the Internet. The length of an IPv4 address is 32-bits, hence, we have 232 IP addresses available. The length of an IPv6 address is 128-bits.
Type “ipconfig” in the command prompt and press ‘Enter’, this gives us the IP address of the device. It is also knows as Logical Address

IP Addresses Classes
Class A : 1–127
Class B : 128 -191
Class C : 192 -223
Class D : 224 -239
Class E : 240 -255

Computer Networks

An interconnection of multiple devices, also known as hosts, that are connected using multiple paths for the purpose of sending/receiving data or media. Computer networks can also include multiple devices/mediums which help in the communication between two different devices; these are known as Network devices and include things such as routers, switches, hubs, and bridges.

MAC Address (Media Access Control address)

The MAC Address is the unique identifier of each host and is associated with its NIC (Network Interface Card). It is also known as Physical Address.
A MAC address is assigned to the NIC at the time of manufacturing.
The length of the MAC address is : 12-nibble/ 6 bytes/ 48 bits
Type “ipconfig/all” in the command prompt and press ‘Enter’, this gives us the MAC address.


A port can be referred to as a logical channel through which data can be sent/received to an application. Any host may have multiple applications running, and each of these applications is identified using the port number on which they are running. A port number is a 16-bit integer.

Port Types Range
Well known Ports: 0–1023
Registered Ports:1024–49151
Ephemeral Ports: 49152–65535

Number of ports: 65,536
Range: 0–65535

DNS Server

DNS stands for Domain Name system.
DNS is basically a server which translates web addresses or URLs (ex: into their corresponding IP addresses. We don’t have to remember all the IP addresses of each and every website.
The command ‘nslookup’ gives you the IP address of the domain you are looking for. This also provides the information of our DNS Server.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

ARP is used to convert an IP address to its corresponding physical address(i.e., MAC Address) and it is also used by the Data Link Layer to identify the MAC address of the Receiver’s machine.

RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)

It provides the IP address of the device given a physical address as input. But RARP has become obsolete since the time DHCP has come into the picture.


A protocol is the set of rules or algorithms which define the way how two entities can communicate across the network and there exists different protocol defined at each layer of the OSI model. Few of such protocols are TCP, IP, UDP, ARP, DHCP, FTP and so on.

That’s us completed our whirlwind tour of networking terms and all the other stuffs. Hopefully you’ve found it informative and enjoyed reading my writeup. Follow me on medium and till then goodbye and Happy Hacking.

Hacker || Student || CTF Player || Coder || Editor at A&M Publications

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