TryHackMe: Introductory Networking Walkthrough

An introduction to networking theory and basic networking tools. You can access the room through this link: https://tryhackme.com/room/introtonetworking

Hi everyone, this is Mrinal Prakash aka EMPHAY and today I am presenting before you all the walkthrough of the room called “Introductory Networking” on TryHackMe. The aim of this room is to provide a beginner’s introduction to the basic principles of networking. Networking is a massive topic, so this really will just be a brief overview; however, it will hopefully give you some foundational knowledge of the topic, which you can build upon for yourself.

TASK 1: Introduction

  1. Let’s get started!
    No Answers needed

TASK 2: The OSI Model: An Overview

Layer 1- Physical Layer
Layer 2- Data Link Layer
Layer 3- Network Layer
Layer 4- Transport Layer
Layer 5- Session Layer
Layer 6- Presentation Layer
Layer 7- Application Layer

  1. Which layer would choose to send data over TCP or UDP?
    4
  2. Which layer checks received packets to make sure that they haven’t been corrupted?
    2
  3. In which layer would data be formatted in preparation for transmission?
    2
  4. Which layer transmits and receives data?
    1
  5. Which layer encrypts, compresses, or otherwise transforms the initial data to give it a standardised format?
    6
  6. Which layer tracks communications between the host and receiving computers?
    5
  7. Which layer accepts communication requests from applications?
    7
  8. Which layer handles logical addressing?
    3
  9. When sending data over TCP, what would you call the “bite-sized” pieces of data?
    Segments
  10. [Research] Which layer would the FTP protocol communicate with?
    7
  11. Which transport layer protocol would be best suited to transmit a live video?
    UDP

TASK 3: Encapsulation

  1. How would you refer to data at layer 2 of the encapsulation process (with the OSI model)?
    Frames
  2. How would you refer to data at layer 4 of the encapsulation process (with the OSI model), if the UDP protocol has been selected?
    Datagrams
  3. What process would a computer perform on a received message?
    De-encapsulation
  4. Which is the only layer of the OSI model to add a trailer during encapsulation?
    Data Link
  5. Does encapsulation provide an extra layer of security (Aye/Nay)?
    Aye

TASK 4: The TCP/IP Model

  1. Which model was introduced first, OSI or TCP/IP?
    TCP/IP
  2. Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Transport layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?
    Transport
  3. Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Session layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?
    Application
  4. The Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of two layers in the OSI model. These layers are Data Link, and?.. (Full Name)?
    Physical
  5. Which layer of the TCP/IP model handles the functionality of the OSI network layer?
    Internet
  6. What kind of protocol is TCP?
    Connection-based
  7. What is SYN short for?
    Synchronise
  8. What is the second step of the three way handshake?
    SYN/ACK
  9. What is the short name for the “Acknowledgement” segment in the three-way handshake?
    ACK

TASK 5: Wireshark

  1. What is the protocol specified in the section of the request that’s linked to the Application layer of the OSI and TCP/IP Models?
    Domain Name System
  2. Which layer of the OSI model does the section that shows the IP address “172.16.16.77” link to (Name of the layer)?
    Network
  3. In the section of the request that links to the Transport layer of the OSI and TCP/IP models, which protocol is specified?
    User Datagram Protocol
  4. Over what medium has this request been made (linked to the Data Link layer of the OSI model)?
    Ethernet II
  5. Which layer of the OSI model does the section that shows the number of bytes transferred (81) link to?
    Physical
  6. [Research] Can you figure out what kind of address is shown in the layer linked to the Data Link layer of the OSI model?
    MAC

TASK 5: [Networking Tools] Ping

  1. What command would you use to ping the bbc.co.uk website?
    ping bbc.co.uk
  2. Ping muirlandoracle.co.uk
    What is the IPv4 address?
    217.160.0.152
  3. What switch lets you change the interval of sent ping requests?
    -i
  4. What switch would allow you to restrict requests to IPv4?
    -4
  5. What switch would give you a more verbose output?
    -v

TASK 6: [Networking Tools] Traceroute

  1. Use traceroute on tryhackme.com
    Can you see the path your request has taken?
    No Answers needed
  2. What switch would you use to specify an interface when using Traceroute?
    -i
  3. What switch would you use if you wanted to use TCP requests when tracing the route?
    -T
  4. [Lateral Thinking] Which layer of the TCP/IP model will traceroute run on by default (Windows)?
    Internet

TASK 7: [Networking Tools] WHOIS

  1. Perform a whois search on facebook.com
    No Answers needed
  2. What is the registrant postal code for facebook.com?
    94025
  3. When was the facebook.com domain first registered?
    29/03/1997
  4. Perform a whois search on microsoft.com
    No Answers needed
  5. Which city is the registrant based in?
    Redmond
  6. [OSINT] What is the name of the golf course that is near the registrant address for microsoft.com?
    Bellevue Golf Course
  7. What is the registered Tech Email for microsoft.com?
    msnhst@microsoft.com

TASK 9: [Networking Tools] Dig

  1. What is DNS short for?
    Domain Name System
  2. What is the first type of DNS server your computer would query when you search for a domain?
    Recursive
  3. What type of DNS server contains records specific to domain extensions (i.e. .com, .co.uk*, etc)*? Use the long version of the name.
    Top-Level Domain
  4. Where is the very first place your computer would look to find the IP address of a domain?
    Local Cache
  5. [Research] Google runs two public DNS servers. One of them can be queried with the IP 8.8.8.8, what is the IP address of the other one?
    8.8.4.4
  6. If a DNS query has a TTL of 24 hours, what number would the dig query show?
    86400

TASK 10: Further Reading

  1. Read the final thoughts
    No Answers needed

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